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PH 200 Introduction to Philosophy
An introduction to some of the major issues concerning fundamental problems of human existence including an understanding of the core areas: logic, epistemology, metaphysics, and ethics. Students will learn to recognize and evaluate logical arguments in the texts of central, primary figures. Because this course contains significant content from pre-1700 and post-1700 writers, students taking this course may opt for Liberal Arts Core credits in either historical period. (3)

PH 205 Logic
An introductory examination of the problems involved in maintaining consistency in thinking, describing reality, and identifying knowledge and certainty. The course includes practice in the avoidance of fallacy and an analysis of the method of reasoning required for science. (3)

PH 300 Modern Logic
A systematic study of the formal nature of deduction. The course includes an introduction to quantification theory, relational propositions, set theory, and propositional calculus. This course does not fulfill the Liberal Arts Core requirement. Prerequisites: EN 102 and permission of instructor. (3)

PH 301 Ethics and Public Policy
A consideration of current problems for social and individual ethical behavior. The course considers specific conflicting values related to human freedom and responsibility; the individual and society; political and civil rights; and the family and society. The course aims to involve the students both individually and collectively in the experience of problem solving. Prerequisites: EN 102 and one course in the humanities. (3)

PH 305 Business Ethics
Examines the ethical foundations of business and the role of ethical judgment in business decisions. The course reviews theoretical foundations and examines case study applications. Prerequisite: EN 102. (3)

PH 309 Ethical Theory
An investigation into the moral dimensions of human life. The course explores the specific theoretical issues that shape the formation of ethical systems. Students will examine foundations for objective moral standards and human rights. Prerequisites: EN 102 and one course in the humanities. (3)

PH 315 Metaphysics and Epistemology
An examination of the philosophical arguments for determining the existence and nature of reality and the scope of knowledge that supports the claims. The study uses a chronological approach examining arguments from the classical, medieval, modern, and contemporary periods. Prerequisites: EN 102 and one course in the humanities. (3)

PH 325 Ancient Philosophy
Covers the span of philosophy in the Western tradition from the pre-Socratic (500 B.C.) to the Roman and Hellenistic philosophers (500 A.D.). Key issues in ethics, politics, natural philosophy, and metaphysics are explored principally through the writings of Plato and Aristotle as well as other figures in the stoic and epicurean traditions. Prerequisites: EN 102 and one course in the humanities. (3)

PH 326 Medieval Philosophy
Examines the perceptions of the Middle Ages through a concentration upon the intellectual themes expressed in philosophical, theological, and literary texts. The relationship between faith and reason is presented as the fundamental problem of the period and is considered in a variety of contexts including the relation between divine and human love, and the function of the earthly city vis-à-vis the heavenly city. Prerequisites: EN 102 and one course in the humanities. (3)

PH 327 Modern Philosophy
Studies the changes in philosophy during the 17th century that gave rise to the new science. Topics include problems in epistemology and metaphysics that led science to a mechanistic world view. Prerequisites: EN 102 and one course in the humanities. (3)

PH 328 Contemporary Philosophy: 19th-21st Century
Examines a wide variety of philosophical schools: pragmatism, idealism, existentialism, phenomenology, and the analytic approach. The focus is upon contemporary changes in logic, ethics, epistemology, and metaphysics. Prerequisites: EN 102 and one course in the humanities. (3)

PH 330 Philosophy of Mind
This course focuses on the question of the place of mind in nature and in the world: What is the mark of the mental? What does it mean to be conscious? What is an emotion? How do thoughts have meaning? Can we ever really know the mind of another person? Could a computer ever really think? Do animals have minds? The aim is to clarify what one is asking with such questions in order to begin to formulate answers. Prerequisite: one course in Philosophy or one advanced science course in which the student has had experience reading primary source material. (3)

PH 345 Philosophy of Religion
A description and evaluation of the major ideas and beliefs in Western civilization that are relevant to the religious dimension of human existence. The course develops from the classical influences on early Christian perspectives to modern and contemporary views. Comparison between traditional and the present leads to an evaluation of religious values. Prerequisites: EN 102 and one course in the humanities. (3)

PH 350 Philosophy of Science
Provides the analytic tools needed to evaluate the structure of scientific explanations. The principal focus is upon the contribution of the Logical Empiricists and the recent criticism of them. Examples are drawn primarily from physics and biology. Prerequisites: EN 102 and one course in the humanities. (3)

PH 355 Existentialism
A study of the major characteristics of existentialism with emphasis on the qualities of freedom and the rational character of the person in society. A selection of works from Kierkegaard, Dostoyevsky, Kafka, Nietzsche, Marcel, Camus, and Sartre are discussed. Prerequisites: EN 102 and one course in the humanities. (3)

PH 400 Internship
Students may register for 3 to 6 credits in an internship with a research or service agency in the Washington metropolitan area. The intern will be monitored by a supervising faculty member and a representative of the cooperating agency. Prerequisites: senior status and a GPA of 2.0 in major courses. (3-6)

PH 405 Philosophy of Law
An examination of issues dealing with natural law, obligation to obey the law, liberty, justice, responsibility, and punishment. Contemporary legal interpretations are examined using tools from moral, social, and political philosophy. Prerequisites: EN 102 and one course in the humanities. (3)

PH 406 Desire, Passion, and Human Action
This course deals with problems in moral psychology and action theory. Students will read and discuss contemporary and historical texts on issues such as freedom, temptation, seduction, weakness of the will, and self-deception. Prerequisites: PH 200 and EN 102. (3)

PH 410 American Philosophy
A study of the major trends and developments in the history of American philosophy. The course emphasizes the classical period of American philosophy with readings from Peirce, James, Royce, Dewey, as well as selections from recent philosophers. Prerequisite: completion of one Philosophy course. (3)

PH 415A Area Studies: Asian Philosophy
Provides an opportunity for students to learn non-Western philosophies. Subjects vary among Chinese, Indian, Islamic, and Japanese philosophies, and the format ranges from comparative survey to contemporary issues. Prerequisite: completion of one Philosophy course. (3)

PH 420 Aesthetics
An investigation of the notion of beauty through a presentation of traditional and contemporary attitudes toward aesthetic judgments. The course emphasizes the problems contained in a philosophy of art as well as in determining aesthetic value. Prerequisite: completion of one Philosophy course. (3)

PH 421 Project
An investigation of a selected topic in the emphasis discipline. The project is intended to demonstrate ability to conduct independent research and present the results in writing of commendable quality. Prerequisite: faculty and dean approval. (3)

PH 422 Senior Seminar
The focus of the senior seminar is the student research paper that demonstrates skill in researching and writing on topics in philosophy or religion. Prerequisite: senior status. (3)

PH 430 Ethics Seminar
This is a topical seminar that aims to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of current issues in ethics and an interdisciplinary view of how ethical systems are developed and solutions derived. Prerequisite: PH 309 or equivalent. (3)